How do I know if a source is academic?
There are resources on this page to help you, but here is a basic checklist:
For more, see our Identifying Sources Guide
When you are determining whether or not the article you found is a peer-reviewed article, you should consider the following.
Different types of publications have different purposes and different audiences. When we talk about periodicals, we can usually divide these publications into three broad categories: scholarly, popular, and trade publications.
|Scholarly Journals||Popular Magazines||Trade Journals|
|Purpose||Informs and reports on original research done by scholars and experts in the field. Published by professional organizations, university presses, and research institutes.||Entertains and informs a general audience without providing in-depth analysis. Published by commercial presses.||Reports on industry trends and new products or techniques useful to people in a trade or business. Published by commercial presses or industry associations.|
|Authors||Articles are written by subject specialists and experts in the field. Reviewed by experts (peer review) not employed by the journal.||Articles are written by journalists, freelance writers, or an editorial staff. No peer-review process.||Articles are written by specialists in a certain field or industry as well as journalists. No peer-review process.|
|Audience||Intended for a limited audience - researchers, scholars, and experts.||Intended for a broad segment of the population, appealing to a general audience.||Intended for practitioners in a particular profession, business, or industry.|
Journal of Biochemistry
American Sociological Review
Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
U.S. News and World Report