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Public Speaking CMST& 220 : Evidence

This research guide is a starting point for communication studies research. Includes library and web resources specifically for public speaking.

Support for your speech

Types of supporting materials:   

ANALOGIES a comparison based on similarities between a familiar and an unfamiliar instance

DEFINITIONS a statement of the meaning of a word.

EXAMPLES are samples or instances that support your claim

FACTS an event or truth that is known to exist or has been observed.  The strongest form of evidence.

NARRATIVES are anecdotes (brief stories) used to support your points

"QUOTATIONS"  using the exact words of a source (person, book, article, web site) with appropriate citation.

STATISTICS a collection of numerical facts. Supports accuracy of statements.

TESTIMONY quoting or restating another persons opinion, often an expert in the field.

Finding Supporting Evidence


Evidence and Documentation

Evidence and Documentation from Writing for Results: The Winning Written Report: Films on Demand database.

Provides support materials include testimony of authorities, examples, illustrations, statistics, comparison, analogies, explanations, and descriptions.  Documentation gives credit to sources cited.

NOTE: If you are off-campus, the video below will not work - please use this link instead:  Evidence and Documentation

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Definitions & Quotations


CREDO ReferenceOver 650 specialized reference books. Online access. 
Some examples of the kinds of resources you'll find there:


  • Quotation books are found in Reference 808.88
  • Dictionaries are found in 420s.
  • Find Specialized Print Dictionaries with the library catalog using your topic with the word encyclopedia or dictionary as a WORD search.

Facts, Testimony and Evidence

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