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Student Research Guide: Teen Phone Addiction: Top Resources

by Caden Hein

Top Resources

Below is a list of 12 scholarly and peer-reviewed articles:

Abi-Jaoude, E., Naylor, K. T., & Pignatiello, A. (2020). Smartphones, social media use and youth mental health. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(6), E136–E141. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190434

This article shows that phone and social media use causes many mental problems, and the effects are the hardest on girls. It shows how social media impact youth and cause much distress through peer pressure and can cause multiple mental health problems. It proves how professionals can reduce this threat to youth and how there is a great need for public awareness and so families and schools can help these teens. I chose this source because it talks about what can be done and what should be done. Not many of my sources did this. They all focused on what the problems were and not how to fix the problems. I would recommend this to anyone for that reason. Other researchers will be able to see ways to address this problem.

Andreassen, C., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.006

This article focuses on how some focus on social media to the point of compulsion. Their study was to focus on how being addicted to social media is also connected to the addictiveness of narcissism and self-esteem. They explained their tests and results determined that women, being younger, being single, being a student, and lower education were all high on their testing results. I determined that this was a great source because it showed me these ideas that were very hard to come across. Its depth and test all are insightful and add much to my knowledge. I also chose it because it was co-written by Mark D. Griffiths who is very knowledgeable and has written other articles that I’m using. I would recommend this to those who wanted to find out how social media is greatly determined by many factors. Many of these factors might not be thought of but are a part of social media addictiveness.

Coskun, S., & Karayagız Muslu, G. (2019). Investigation of problematic mobile phones use and Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) level in adolescents. Community Mental Health Journal55(6), 1004–1014. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.skagit.edu/10.1007/s10597-019-00422-8

This source is the study of how problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is associated with FOMO on social media. The test performed and the data collected show that there were large differences between age, gender, academics, and the frequency of using social media and a phone. I chose this one because it goes hand in hand with the previous source. It shows me that not only are these two connected but that they can be determined by multiple factors stated above. I found this source to be a great option because it gave me the knowledge to determine what other factors might be involved, instead of only how FOMO can cause an addiction. Someone else might find this source helpful because it shows how different factors, like age and gender, are involved in FOMO on social media and phone addictions. 

De-Sola Gutiérrez, J., Rodríguez de Fonseca, F., & Rubio, G. (2016). Cell-phone addiction: A review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 175. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00175

This source is a review of many articles published that are about phone addictions. This article goes into depth on many concepts revolving around phones and how there is a consensus that they are addictive. However, this explores the point that research varies on this subject. The review shows how the degree of problematic phone use varies from person to person due to their own personality. It also explores how, like an internet addiction, there are many mental and physical effects from this. Lastly, they show how phone addiction is related to a drug or alcohol addiction. I chose this source as one of the best because it showed me a large sum up of much information. It basically brought everything together. It was easy to see all of the connections in one article. Seeing all the connections helped me to determine which parts I wanted to focus on and which parts seemed the most important to my research. I would recommend this for someone who was researching phone addictions due to the fact that it brings many key ideas together. It shows how personality and phone addictions are related and the causes of them.

Dresp-Langley B. (2020). Children's health in the digital age. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093240

This article makes clear how developing children are getting reduced amounts of sunlight and nature due to the time spent inside on their devices. It studies how screen and addiction, even with the youngest ages, can lead to negative changes in their metabolism. It studies how natural chemicals in their developing brains deregulate because of online addictions related to drug addictions. I chose this article because it was very informative about brain chemicals, like dopamine and serotonin. I found this helpful because it shows me that these addictions are not only on the outside but cause the brain to be messed up and rewired. Pathways change because of this addiction which leads to dangerous consequences. I would recommend this article to anyone who wants to focus on the brain and the chemicals in it. It would be good for someone who wanted to go more in-depth and look at the physiological changes phones make.

Franchina, V., Vanden Abeele, M., van Rooij, A. J., Lo Coco, G., & De Marez, L. (2018). Fear of Missing Out as a predictor of problematic social media use and phubbing behavior among Flemish adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(10), 2319. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102319

This article explores how the term and feeling of fear of missing out (FOMO) can cause excessive and addictive social media usage. It completes a test of Flemish teens and explores how FOMO is related to many factors including phubbing behavior and different social media usages. It shows what FOMO is stronger in regard to social media platforms. I chose this article because I thought it did the best job explaining what FOMO was and how it related to social media. Many other articles went over the basics of FOMO but this one explained how much it can determine someone's addictive behavior on social media. I also liked how it provided different platforms, like Youtube and Facebook, and how each one had different effects. I would recommend this to anybody who was interested in the fact that different social media platforms have different effects on teens. They could use this with almost any other part of their research.

Guyon, P. W., Jr, Corroon, J., Ferran, K., Hollenbach, K., & Nguyen, M. (2020). Hold the phone! Cell phone-related injuries in children, teens, and young adults are on the rise. Global Pediatric Health, 7, 2333794X20968459. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794X20968459

This article is about how phone-related injuries from those who are 21 and younger are moving and what the trend is. Their test involves the rate of injuries from cell phones and how they determined that injuries have gone up tremendously in the past many years. In their research, they’ve determined that the highest rate of phone-related injuries are kids 2 or less. I chose this article because it wasn’t like the rest of them. It showed how children 2 and less are at the highest rates of injuries. It appears that this is not a huge concern for teens who drive but with little children. This would be helpful to a researcher who thought that teens and phone injuries were high. They would be able to see that it’s more of a problem with very young children.

Kaviani, F., Robards, B., Young, K. L., & Koppel, S. (2020). Nomophobia: Is the fear of being without a smartphone associated with problematic use?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 6024. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176024

This source is a study on if nomophobia, the fear of being without a phone, can create more of a chance that three different problems will happen which use the question groups of “prohibited,” “dependent,” and “dangerous.” This article explains the research methods and then, explains their findings. Their discovery did come back positive, and it confirmed their questions that were previously answered. They also determined through this study that nomophobia can lead to problematic phone use in which they explain in their research. This source helped me because I was able to determine what nomophobia caused. I chose this article for that very reason. Other articles have explained what nomophobia is but this one went in-depth and showed what nomophobia can cause. With this source, I was able to find key details of nomophobia and how it affects different parts of a phone addiction. I would recommend this source because it not only explains what nomophobia is, but it tests it and shows how it’s a cause of many other phone addiction problems.

Kim, S. K., Kim, S. Y., & Kang, H. B. (2016). An analysis of the effects of smartphone push notifications on task performance with regard to smartphone overuse using ERP. Computational Intelligence & Neuroscience, 1–8. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.skagit.edu/10.1155/2016/5718580

This article is a study of how push notifications on phones affect people's performance doing tasks. They did this study because other studies have shown how push notifications increase people's time on a phone, but their studies are limited. They explain the way they completed their test through risk and non-risk groups and what it determined. Their study determined the main point that push notifications have a negative effect on task performance. I chose this article because it was one of the only, I could find on this subject. I found through other sources that push notifications affected phone addictions and have connections with causing them. This was the best source I found that dealt with how they affect performance as well. This source would be great for anyone researching because it shows a limited study topic. Their research is in-depth and gives much insight into this fairly unknown subject.

Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social networking sites and addiction: Ten lessons learned. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(3), 311. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030311

This source looks into how social networking has become very popular and that they present the research they have found about them. They have also included that the need to be on these sites is because of compulsive behavior. Since many of these cases are similar to drug addictions, the researchers have presented ten lessons that they have learned from their own research. Throughout the ten thoroughly explained research lessons, they present clinical recommendations for these addictive behaviors. I chose this article because it has answered many of my key questions and opened new areas to research. This source provided me with the base knowledge I needed to perform much more research. These ten questions asked are some of the most important questions that I’ve seen. They are thoroughly explained and show many different angles to each question. I would highly recommend anyone to use this source for their research. It is thorough in the ten lessons it explains and above all, these are great lessons to start out with and use to explore more topics.

Kwok, S. W., Lee, P. H., & Lee, R. L. (2017). Smart device use and perceived physical and psychosocial outcomes among Hong Kong adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(2), 205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020205

This article was the investigation to show what the prevalence was of smart device usage and its difference between what adolescents believed was the outcome. This being what was the physical and psychosocial outcomes and what was the difference a teen would think these outcomes would be. They explain their test and show that a large number of these teens will have significant negative outcomes from using a smart device. I chose this article because it was the most in-depth article on the subject I could find. The time and energy put into this article were immensely helpful. It showed me all the different percentages of smart device use and determined many negative outcomes. I would recommend this to anyone who was doing research on my subject because this source was determined to get all the facts presented and gives key information into the percentages of phone users and negative outcomes.

Moreno-Guerrero, A. J., Aznar-Díaz, I., Cáceres-Reche, P., & Rodríguez-García, A. M. (2020). Do age, gender and poor diet influence the higher prevalence of nomophobia among young people?. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(10), 3697. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103697

This source is aimed to study nomophobia and the different forms it comes in and the relationship it has to certain outside factors. The first part of their study is to determine if it happens more in males or females. Then, it also studies if diet has anything to do with it and if a less healthy diet from excessive phone use can strengthen that correlation. It shows the test and gives the end result. This is that nomophobia is most dominant when people can't communicate with others immediately. Other findings they include are that the female rate of nomophobia is higher, age was mostly insignificant, and people who think that their diet is determined by their smartphone to have higher levels of nomophobia. I chose this source because I wanted to learn more about nomophobia. I also wanted to see what factors determined higher levels of nomophobia and this source was the best to explain it. I also chose this one because it was performed recently. The detail of this source was outstanding, and many key parts were determined. I would recommend this source for that very reason. If anyone wanted to find out about who nomophobia affects, this would be an informative source.

Below is a list of a web source, government statistic/document, and news article:

Wilmer, H. H., Sherman, L. E., & Chein, J. M. (2017). Smartphones and Cognition: A review of research exploring the links between mobile technology habits and cognitive functioning. Frontiers in Psychology8, 605. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00605

I chose this source because it caught my eye. After looking at it I found out so much information that covers parts of my topics. I chose it because it looked reliable, was on NCBI, exploring the cognitive function, and looking at how adolescents play a part in their research. This is a study on how habitual involvement with devices and phones will negatively impact people's ability to do common cognition like remember, pay attention, and regulate their emotions. They discuss findings on how cell phone habits and cognitive performance are related and discuss limitations and offer ways on how this field of study might be progressed due to the immaturity of scientific literature unable to endorse any strong conclusions on this subject. This topic is credible. First of all, it is on www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov which is very reliable. It is an article part of Frontiers in Psychology which is the largest journal in this field that publishes peer-reviewed research in all areas of psychological science. Henry H. Wilmer is part of the Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University. Lauren Sherman, M.A., a Ph.D. student in developmental psychology at UCLA and a researcher at the Children’s Digital Media Center in LA. Jason Chein, Ph.D. is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Temple University.

Energy Information Administration (2021). Households Using Electronics, Internet Devices, And Cell Phones By Type And Household Income: 2015 ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 2021 Online Edition. Retrieved from
https://statabs-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.skagit.edu/sa/docview.html?table-no=1184&acc-no=C7095-1.24&year=2021&z=4D88388E72A261CF22821C0F77AC9EE5F2FC1B2F&accountid=1131

This is a graph showing households using electronics, the internet, and smartphones. It shows how the number of hours spent on these media sources with annual household income. This is a great source because it is authoritative because it is from the Energy Information Administration and shows the amount of cell phone usage with the income of each household. This shows me that the time spent on cell phones is connected with the amount of income people are getting. 

Rowe, P. (2019, Feb 27). Are teens getting high on social media? Florida Times Union. http://ezproxy.library.skagit.edu/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.ezproxy.library.skagit.edu/newspapers/are-teens-getting-high-on-social-media/docview/2186154681/se-2?accountid=1131

This article is about how social media on a teen's cell phone will negatively affect physical and mental health and also increase risk-taking. It covers how a psychiatrist did an investigation into if social media has the same effects as cannabis. This is the first to compare cannabis and social media because she says that many don’t realize that excessive phone usage is an addictive behavior. This is about the psychiatrists’ thoughts on social media usage and how her studies are important. It also explores her role in ABCD and what she was doing in her tests and studies. I chose this article because it was interesting to me that social media and cannabis can have similar effects. I want to explore how social media affects teens as well as phones because nowadays, they are so intertwined. I wanted to see what thoughts a psychiatrist had on this topic and what people were doing in this field to understand more about social media/phone addiction. I want to find more on how the brain is rewired with a media addiction and how phones and drugs are related, and this article showed me certain important aspects for me to explore.

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