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Student Research Guide: Drug-eluting stents vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Top Resources

by Nicole Branam

Top Resources

Ali, L., Malik, S., Khalid, A. B., Sultan, M., & Sadiq, N. (2014). Safety and Technical Success of Percutaneous Left Main Coronary Artery Stenting. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 30(4).

  •     This article is about deciding if having a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) stent inserted into the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is safe and what the positive rate of success are. This article was chosen because of how it describes how effective a stent in the LMCA can be as an alternative to the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure. Introducing a new factor in treating a heart condition can evolve the medical heart science and treatment methods. The result was that the PCI stent is acceptable and explains that the short-term safety of the procedure is acceptable but does not have enough data to research the long-term safety and effectiveness of the treatment. This article provides an approach to an unknown treatment for a blockage in the LMCA and gives a new perspective to treating patients with an alternative to a CABG procedure. 

Cardiovascular disease. (2021). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from

  • This article is about the heart muscle’s function, arteries, diseases, and treatments for the different diseases. This article was chosen for the background information about the different arteries the heart has and the diseases that can occur in the heart. There are mentions of the arteries and their treatments for diseases that occurred was the type of information that caught my attention. The article gives information about open heart surgery that corresponds with CABG procedures. The article section with the artery diseases has images that mimic the types of problems that can occur in the artery that helped with my understanding of my topic.

Cui, K.Y., Lyu S.Z., Song, X.T., Yuan, F., Xu, F; Zhang, M., Zhang, M.D., Wang, W., Zhang, D.F., Dai, J., Tian, J.F., Wang, Y.L., K.-Y. (2018). Long term outcomes of drug-eluting stent versus coronary artery bypass grafting for left main coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Journal of geriatric cardiology: JGC. 

  •     This article talked about drug-eluting stents vs. a CABG procedure that contributes to the long-term effectiveness of the treatment. The mention of long-term outcomes of drug-eluting stents versus CABG caught my attention because it corresponded exactly with my topic. The results talked about which treatment is better for how severe and time effective the treatment was. The article provided a new and longer outcome to my topic that I found interesting to learn about. This article helped me contemplate what would be included in my thesis statement.

Darshan Doshi, M. D. (2020, April 23). Is angioplasty plus stenting or coronary artery bypass surgery better for treating left main coronary artery disease? Harvard Health Blog.   

  •     This short article is about what percent blockage of an artery is needed to consider a heart disease treatment. This was a background article that I found. The article gave a perspective on what percent of a blockage in an artery is most dangerous to have. It talked a little about the resent studies pertaining to the comparison of CABG and stenting. This discovery helped me narrow down my research topic to something that I would be interested in learning more about. 

Jones, C. L., & Frey, R. J. (2020). Coronary stenting. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), Gale virtual reference library: The Gale encyclopedia of medicine (6th ed.). Gale. Credo Reference:

  •     This article talks about the definition, purpose, and after care of coronary stenting. This article was another background research search that told me about what kinds of stenting were available. It talked about the early stent that had little to severe risks of re-blockage of an artery. The different types of drug-eluting stents that was an evolved idea of the bare metal stent and its purpose. It also talks about the aftercare a patient has to do in order for the stent to function well. 

Jones, D. S. (2013). Broken hearts: The Tangled History of Cardiac Care. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN: 978-1-421-40801-9

  •     This book is about the heart and heart attacks that have caused a debate on what the main cause for a heart attack was. I thought that this article was interesting, and it gave a new perspective of which type of heart topic I wanted to continue researching. It tells the process of buildup of plaque in an artery that causes a blockage of that artery. Tells the tale of missing complications of heart surgery. And it explains that fear and unpredictability of heart surgery and families’ fears.

Kajimoto, K., Miyauchi, K., Yamamoto, T., Daida, H., & Amano, A. (2012). Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: One-Year Outcomes with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Percutaneous Coronary Artery Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stent. Journal of Cardiac Surgery, 27(2), 152–157.

  •     Talks about the one-year outcomes of CABG surgery and a drug eluting stent. Talks about the positive outcomes of drug-eluting stents through randomized trials. The trials are of patients that have LMCA disease and was put through the CABG procedure or through the drug-eluting stent procedure. Coincided with my topic. There were many limitations that occurred. Comparison of drug-eluting stents and CABG said that CABG is the better procedure to go through to treat heart disease. 

Paech, C., Dahnert, I., & Riede, F. T. (2015). Stent implantation of left main coronary artery stenosis in an infant: Effective long-term treatment? Annals of Pediatric Cardiology, 8(2), 147.  

  •     This article is describing a study that determines if drug-eluting stents will become a long-term treatment for infants, and eventually adults, with a specific heart disease rather than going through a CABG procedure. I picked it because of the uniqueness of the study. It featured the process of using stents in infants rather than adults. Contributes to new medical technology research. Talks about the check-ups, whether something went wrong or more improvement with the stent. Talks about the risks involving stents in infants.

Price, M. J. (2006). Unprotected Left Main Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents. Journal of Interventional Cardiology, 19, S21–S26. 11/j.1540-8183.2006.00167.x  

  •     This study is about CABG and drug-eluting stents in an unprotected LMCA and results of the different studies that were included. I chose this because it talks about the DES and CABG which coincides with my topic. It also gives the results of the studies pertaining to my topic. Gives technical tips for left main PCI. Has low mortality numbers for DES implantation which was a concern.

Raja, S. G., & Dreyfus, G. D. (2006). Efficacy and Safety of Drug-Eluting Stents: Current Best Available Evidence. Journal of Cardiac Surgery, 21(6), 605–612.

  •     This article is about drug-eluting stents only. It talks about the evolutionary outcomes of newer generations. It compares DES to bare metal stents (BMS-first generation). Talks about the efficacy of the DES in small trails. Mentions current concerns and controversies involving DES. Has a section about the impact on surgical myocardial revascularization of DES.

Raja, S. G., Uzzaman, M., Garg, S., Santhirakumaran, G., Lee, M., Soni, M. K., & Khan, H. (2018). Comparison of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass and drug-eluting stents for management of isolated left anterior descending artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 7,710 patients. Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 7(5), 567–576. 

  •     Evolution of MIDCAB with DES in patients with disease in left anterior descending artery. Talks about MI, MACCE, and TVR. MIDCAB allows superior freedom from TVR compared to PVI in patients. There were significant differences in the TVR rates between CABG and PCI groups. I learned that both MIDCAB and DES are effective strategies for revascularization. I did not realize that information was important until I read the article. 

Sharma, S. P., Dahal, K., Khatra, J., Rosenfeld, A., & Lee, J. (2017). Percutaneous coronary intervention vs coronary artery bypass grafting for left main coronary artery disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 35(3).  

  •     This article is about determining if DES-PCI is as safe and effective as most cases of CABG procedures. They used randomized controlled trials that I could not find in other articles. This article analyzed other research studies and combined them with their own to get an answer to their question. This allowed me to see what other studies have come up with to find more information about my topic. These results helped me build up my body paragraphs. I am also using their found resources to help my search for my essay content. 

Upadhaya, S., Baniya, R., Madala, S., Subedi, S. K., Khan, J., Velagapudi, R. K., & Bachuwa, G. (2017). Drug-eluting stent placement versus coronary artery bypass surgery for unprotected left main coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Cardiac Surgery, 32(2), 70-79. doi:10.1111/jocs.13090

  •     This article is about DES vs. CABG in ULMCA outcomes. Uses randomized controlled trials that allowed for better results. It is unbiased. Has a result that I was looking for. It accounted for limitations that were found throughout the trails.

Wakim, V., Abi Khalil, E., Salloum, A. K., Khazen, G., Ghassibe-Sabbagh, M., & Zalloua, P. A. (2021). New susceptibility alleles associated with severe coronary artery stenosis in the Lebanese population. BMC Medical Genomics, 14(1). doi:10.1186/s12920-021-00942-x 

  •     This article talks about CAD and its involvement with genetics and environmental factors. New perspective to a new idea that has to do with CAD. Talks about stenosis and risk factors associated with youths. Includes family history, diabetes, and ones genetic code that contributes to their health. I thought it was interesting to find an article that had to do someone’s genetic make-up.

Zhai, C., Cong, H., Hou, K., Hu, Y., Zhang, J., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Clinical outcome comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention and bypass surgery in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 11(1). doi:10.1186/s13098-019-0506-y 

  •     This article compares the endpoints of CABG vs. DES-PCI in patients with diabetes. This was still randomized but it had patients with other health situations that could affect the stent or surgery. This was to find out if there would be a difference in results compared with randomized trials without any added health situations. Found results of CABG being superior to DES-PCI patients. New viewpoint of health complications in addition to CABG or DES-PCI implantations.
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