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Citation and Style Guides to MLA, APA, CHICAGO, and others. Copyright & Plagiarism : DOIs

What is a DOI?

DOI_disc_logo      A DOI is a Digital Object Identifer.  It is a unique identifying number/charactoer string for an electronic article, ebook, or other "object".  It provides a permanent, stable access to these objects on the internet.  

All DOI numbers begin with a 10, such as: 10.1159/000330840 or 10.1289/ehp.1003206. 

Several citations styles now incorporate DOIs for electronic sources when present.   Not all articles have DOIs.


Where to find the DOI

  • Usually located on the first page of an electronic journal article, near the copyright notice or near the author's address.
  • May also be found in the Full Record Display of an article in a database, with the field labeled DOI.

DOI Look-up

If you are unable to locate the DOI for a source, try  CrossRef  :

Click on the link on the left column “Simple Text Query”
• Create a free account (this involves entering an email address, designating your use: student, faculty, etc., and entering the captcha phrase. You will be sent a link via email to click to confirm)
• Go back to the entry form and enter your registered email address to authenticate
• Enter citations in the box (copy and paste works easiest)
• Click on enter
• If a doi is available, it will appear under the citation